Ethics is a discipline of philosophy that studies human behavior and its relationship with the notions of good and evil, moral precepts, duty, happiness, and common welfare. Today we will talk about what is the meaning of ethics in Urdu?
Ethics as a word comes from the Latin Ethics. It, in turn, comes from the ancient Greek (Ethics), derived from ethos, which means ‘character’ or ‘belonging to the character.’
As a discipline, the function of ethics is to analyze morality, duty, and virtue that guide human behavior towards freedom and justice.
If you want to fulfill its function, ethics is subdivided into a set of specialized branches. Among the components of ethics, the following are recognized:
Metaethics: study the ethical theories themselves and analyze the meanings attributed to honest words. For example, what do people mean when they talk about Good, happiness, or desire.
Normative ethics or deontology: establishes principles to guide norms and duties in areas of common interest—for example, the so-called golden rule (treat others as we would like to be treated).
Applied ethics: analyzes the application of ethical and moral standards to specific situations. For example, when bioethics, environmental ethics, communicational ethics, etc.
Ethics is very closely related to morality, but it is different from it. While character refers to norms adopted by tradition, ethics is a discipline that reflects on what actions would be correct.
Moral and ethics: Ethics meaning in Urdu
Ethics are different from morals. While morality defends compliance with the norms arising from custom, ethics supports the principles that guide behavior, even if they challenge tradition.
In philosophy, ethics analyzes human actions and norms without being limited to morality since it does not prescribe norms as such.
Ethics only defines explicit standards for professionals in the exercise of their functions to ensure that they act correctly when personal morals conflict with professional duty.
For example, suppose a doctor receives a murderer wounded by the police as an emergency patient. His moral values make him disapprove of the “patient” and think it is unfair that he lives when he has killed so many innocent people.
However, the ethical code of his profession forces him to do everything possible to save his life. If you deliberately let him die, the doctor may lose his professional license. The fulfillment of professional duty is imposed on the morale of the individual.
Types of ethics: Ethics meaning in Urdu
Although there is no systematic classification of the types of ethics, we can determine them according to their application areas.
Professional ethics: it is the normative science that studies the values, principles, duties, and rights that guide each profession based on responsibility. Professional ethics is specified in the professional code of ethics or deontological code.
Some examples of professional ethics are:
Medical ethics: refers to the values that guide the health professional towards the correct action, taking into account the risks and social concerns. An example is a Hippocratic Oath.
Legal ethics: study the values and principles that govern the practice of law in all its instances.
Teaching ethics: science that studies the values and principles that govern the duties and rights of teachers in the exercise of their profession.
a system of values that guides scientific practice in all its stages (research and application), appealing especially to the principles of honesty, integrity, and social and environmental responsibility.
Military ethics: regulates the limits and scope of military action. Among them, it governs the use of military force in compliance with citizen and governmental order.
Business ethics: these are the principles and values that regulate the actions and activities of a company. For example, avoid unfair competition, protect the environment, offer quality products, promote a healthy work environment, and avoid misleading advertising.
Secular ethics or secular ethics: the set of values and principles that guide human behavior, based on intellectual virtues such as empathy, rational thinking, and logic.
Religious ethics: principles that order human behavior based on spiritual virtues and intangible concepts. Such as the highest Good, Truth, the soul, justice, the primordial order, love, etc. It differs from one religion to another.
Environmental ethics or environmental ethics: it is a part of applied ethics that considers caring for the environment with the scope of the common Good. It is transversal to different disciplines such as ecology, economics, law, etc.
Seven examples of ethics in everyday life
Origin of ethics
The antecedents of ethics go back to Ancient Greece. Socrates is considered the father of ethics since all his thought revolved around the notion of the Good. Plato also dedicated a good part of his work to Good, Truth, and his role in the Republic.
However, Aristotle was the founder of ethics proper. Ethics as a discipline was born with his work. The author systematizes the relationship between social and individual ethics, norms, and goods for the first time. And theory and practice. Likewise, it classifies the virtues as intellectual and moral.
Therefore, ethics is after systems of norms such as the laws of Hammurabi or the Ten Commandments of Moses. The discipline of ethics emerged precisely to reflect on the relationship between the behavior of human beings, the system of moral laws, and the idea of the Good that guides them.
History of ethics: Ethics meaning in Urdu
Plato and Aristotle established two ethical currents present until today. For Plato, Good and Truth are the top ends, and the search for virtue is inherent in the soul. For Aristotle, ethics is the motive and the means to achieve happiness, and, to that extent, it is a logical operation, not of the soul.
After Aristotle, the currents embraced the concept of ethics as a medium dominated. But later, Neoplatonism recovered the idea of the highest Good as a purpose.
In the early Middle Ages, Christian philosophy justified the postponement of earthly happiness in terms of the Eternal Good under the influence of Neoplatonism. On the other hand, towards the thirteenth century, scholastic philosophy (represented by Saint Thomas Aquinas) unified the search for virtue to search for happiness. The Renaissance, on the other hand, returned to approach the Aristotelian currents.
Towards the seventeenth century, the strengthening of the State aroused the discussion about its links with ethics. As in the authors Hobbes and Hutcheson. In modernity, ethics was oriented to the origin of morality, the role of society, religious dogmatism, and the contrast between freedom and determinism.
Hegel saw the State as an end of human behavior and related ethics to the philosophy of law. Kant, the father of German idealism, defended the autonomy of ethics.
Between the 19th and 20th centuries, the development of utilitarianism, psychology, ethical evolutionism. And other currents questioned traditional moral values. In the 20th century, ethics focused on studying its essence, origin, purpose, and language.
The Nicomachean ethics refers to the work Ethics for Nicomachus, written by the philosopher Aristotle. His main work on ethics; is essential since it is the first systematic treatise on this subject.
In his, Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle identifies individual and collective happiness as the supreme goal. To achieve it, he places reason, virtue, and prudence above passions since, for him, human beings live in society and must direct their attitudes towards a common good.
For Aristotle, all practical rationality seeks an end or a good. The purpose of ethics is to establish the supreme goal above. Which justifies all the others and helps know the way to achieve it.
They are patterns of behavior that adjust the behavior of the individual. Ethical values are acquired through the individual development of people. It is with their experiences within the environment surrounding them, such as family, school, social, and the media.
The objective of ethical values is to maintain clear rules of the game in a society regarding the execution of specific functions. The most important are: freedom, justice, responsibility, honesty, and respect.
Rushworth Kidder asserts that “standard definitions of ethics typically include phrases like ‘ the science of ideal human character ‘ or ‘the science of moral duty.’
The word ethics in English. It refers to several things that can refer to philosophical ethics or moral philosophy. A project attempts to use reason to answer various types of ethical questions. As the English philosopher Bernard Williams writes, trying to explain moral philosophy: “What makes an inquiry philosophical is reflective generality and a style of argument that claims to be rationally persuasive.” Williams describes the content of this research area how to address the comprehensive question, “how should one live.”
In addition, it can refer to the standard human capacity to think about ethical problems that are not particular to philosophy. You can also use ethics to describe one’s own idiosyncratic principles or habits. For example: “Joe has a strange ethic.”
Civic and Ethical Training: Ethics meaning in Urdu
It is in charge of teaching the individual how they should be linked and live in harmony with society. Its main objective is to consolidate in students the necessary capacity to have their criteria. It is to know what is ethical principles that humanity has shaped throughout its history. And to form the basis for identifying the importance of maintaining responsible. And free action for their development as a person and a better social life.
What is Social Ethics?
It studies the moral principles and norms of social life in an institutional and non-institutional sense. In addition to this, it is considered an essential complement of individual ethics. Who believes in the responsibility of people about others and to himself?
Ethical principles serve as a guide to define a person’s behavior and take what is considered good or valid.
The main ethical principles are:
- Principle of morality.
- Life principle.
- Principle of humanity.
- Equality principle.
- Community principle.
What is a Code of Ethics?
It is a mechanism that allows companies to implement (through declarations of principles and values) universal moral and ethical bases. Which are fundamental in the daily life of the organization. The code of ethics helps relationships with employees, customers, suppliers, contractors, and even a company’s competitors. It also creates confidence in the clarity of the negotiations of an organization or company.
The moral code of ethics philosophy of a company arises as an integral part of its organizational culture. And it is determined by the patterns, symbols, values, practices of the company, and its history. That is reflected in how its directors, administrators, and Managers lead it, and like the rest of the collaborators, they carry out their tasks.
It is the set of values and norms that allow better development in professional activities. In addition, it is the one in charge of establishing ethical guidelines in job growth through the universal values that are part of human beings.
FAQ on Ethics meaning in Urdu
- Why and for what ethics in the life of the human being?
Among many other things, ethics helps to form autonomous human beings capable of reasoning, deciding, and finding for themselves the meaning they want to give to their life. Conscious beings, actors in their lives, can interact with others, the community, and their environment.
- What is the importance of ethics for our life?
Ethics consists of improving as a person, for yourself and the good of society.Adhere to values that promoted from home, stick to your morality. However, it acts responsibly and seek the most significant mutual benefit between you and the people around you (the society).
- How is professional ethics put into practice?
Professional ethics determine how a professional should act in a given situation. Professionals face different positions daily, and professional ethics foresees errors and determines what is good and what is not, both morally and ethically, in a specific professional field.
- Why can ethics only be lived in society?
Ethics is an instrument to achieve power and stay with it because it is directly related to coexistence in society. Ethics is a discernment between good and evil of how to act and thus coexist with the rest.
Conclusion on Ethics meaning in Urdu
Ethics is the science of moral behavior. By carrying out a detailed analysis of society, it established how all the individuals who live in it should act or behave. This philosophical discipline linked to the rules. However, they serve as the basis for making a difference between good and evil.
The ability to decide whether something is morally correct or not,it called an ethical criterion. Also, different types of criteria can used in making a decision. Among them is the utilitarian criterion, which focuses on justice and focuses on rights.